Once clarified these points, we shall concentrate our attention in the effectiveness of what they are supposed to do and any possible limits to their actions (in diplomacy and economy).
Forms of government
In regards to this point, and following the classical tradition of classifying them according to the number of representatives (one, a few or all) we find: monarchy, aristocracy and democracy. Without entering into an analysis of the concept of “forms of government” (not the objective of this project) the intention is to simply highlight the existence of actual States fulfilling different patterns (hence, the mention of only the basic typology): from States that claim to have absolute monarchies (i.e.: Brunei, Oman, Qatar, etc.), through constitutional ones (i.e.: United Kingdom, Denmark, Spain, etc.) to representative democracies (most cases) the globe offers a wide spectrum of examples in which although the form of government differs, in all cases they are still States.
Division of powers
It consists on the typical model in democracies (and some other forms of governments) by which the representatives of the population are divided into a trias politica: executive, legislative and judicial power. It can be inferred that actually each of the three mentioned branches connotes one of the classic form of government: the executive and the monarch; the judiciary and the aristocracy; and the legislative and the democracy.
We shall develop into detail this point when we refer in the near future to SOVEREIGNTY. However, we are able to anticipate our point of view with the idea that although we accept it is a fact some States worldwide are heavily in debt with other international subjects, they are still independent political organizations. It is true, however, that when a SOVEREIGN STATE is heavily in debt in relation to other international agents its government may see its internal and external decision making power affected in realpolitik.
A paragraph apart in the economy of a State deserves another problematic: Does it need to have its own currency so to be called State? Once more the international arena gives us the answer: with the European Union as a leading case, almost all the members share a common currency (Euro) but they still keep their character of independent States.
The term refers to the activity of negotiations among States linked to many and various aspects (economy, politics, law, peace and war, etc.). It is usually conducted by the head of the State and/or representatives designated to do so (diplomats). It could be considered as a mean a country has to ensure a participation in the international forum.